Mathematical logic, and in particular its extension to many-valued logic, as based on algebraic and topological foundations of many-valuedness, produces a huge potential of enriched applications in health care.

The Logic of Health goes to the heart of what medical mathematics cannot do, in particular concerning management of many-valuedness and order, since traditional logic of health is mathematically and logically restricted to being medical statistics only.

Many-valuedness is not to be confused with probability. Many-valuedness embraces gradation of truth, whereas probability quantifies chance (of an event). Samples in events are in probability theory treated as points without any structure. In logic, they are expressions based on underlying signatures, where signatures embrace terminology, nomenclature and ontology.

WHO-FIC classifications are logical, when represented based on underlying logical signatures. However, it is not recognized explicitly within WHO's classification documents, nor within SNOMED CT.

See also Logic-Based Medicine (LBM).